After finishing a local school in Beryozovsky District in 1975, Sobyanin matriculated to the Kostroma Technology Institute in Kostroma. On graduation he received an assignment to the large tube-rolling factory in Chelyabinsk. Started working as a machinist there.
From 1982 to 1984 he worked with Komsomol in Chelyabinsk.
In 1984, he returned to Kogalym. There, he worked as a vice-chairman of the Kogalym selsovet (lowest level of administrative subdivision in rural areas), in a municipal economy department and local tax administration.
In 1989, he got a second degree in jurisprudence (All-Union Correspondence Institute of Law). His PhD thesis was titled "Legal position of the autonomous okrugs as federal subjects of Russia". On 23 May 2007, at the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Jurisprudence at Government of Russia, defence of Sobyanin's higher doctoral thesis "RF subject in economical and social development of the state" were to take place on the basis of his monograph published shortly before the event. But the defence was cancelled due to an unknown reason. Examination of Dissernet of Sobyanin's doctoral thesis and the monograph of 2007 exposed high level of plagiarism.
Since July 1998, he has been chairman of the Constitutional Law, Judicial, and Legal Problems Committee.
On 27 October 1996, he was re-elected as a delegate and a chairman of the Khanty–Mansi Duma.
On 12 July 2000 he was appointed the First Deputy of Plenipotentiary of President of Russia in the Urals Federal District.
He has been a member of the Supreme Council of the "United Russia" political party since 2004.
In 2005, Sergey Sobyanin sent a request to the President of Russia about a vote of confidence. That was done in case of the change of the governor assignment procedure. Vladimir Putin nominated him for election by the Duma of the Tyumen Oblast and he was finally reelected on 17 February 2005.
In November 2005, he was appointed a head of the Administration of the President of Russia.
Since 21 October 2010, he has been the Mayor of Moscow.
Awarded a Medal of Honour, church IInd stage order of St. Kniaz Danil Moscowskiy, Medal of Honour in Education, French Republic Medal of Honour in Agriculture.
Laureate of the "2003 Russia's Man of the Year: Politician" prize.